Sunday, March 31, 2019

Sophiatown in the 1950s

Sophiatown in the 1950sSophiatown is a suburb in Johannesburg, entropy Africa. It is located on a Johannesburg ridge c wholeed Melville Koppies. Sophiatown is an example of how apartheid was bad for the native inhabitants and that it had to go. Before apartheid Sophiatown was open up for Europeans, but as the city Johannesburg developed and a sewage diddly-shit nearby, the Europeans left and the fetch was then rented by the native peck. The natives were allowed to lessen in Sophiatown because it was near the sewage dump and the Europeans in the city didnt regard the miners to settle within the city limits. Sophiatown shows how South Africa developed under apartheid. The apartheid caused multiracial communities in Sophiatown that developed to let multicultural. Sophiatown was the only clothe the populate could rent themselves in Johannesburg that was not owned by the g overnment. Apartheid was the ruling of Europeans in South Africa over the natives during 1948-1994. The E uropeans found that South Africa had rich resources, especially gold, for mining and that they could use the grind of the natives to get it. They developed a politics system, Nationalist Party, which kept the natives rectify to maintain the European authority which was known as Afrikaners. The population of South Africa migrated to the sites the Europeans were building to mine the resources but they were required to abide by discriminative laws made by the Europeans. Sophiatown developed as Johannesburg did and helped to end apartheid.Sophiatown was originally a farm outside of Johannesburg bought by Hermann Tobiansky. Tobiansky named the suburb later his wife Sophia, and the suburb was only for Europeans. However, when a sewage dump was built nearby the Europeans didnt want to settle there and the owner allowed natives and other nationalities to settle there. During the beginning of the source world war natives travel to cities for the jobs in mining and factory work. During and after the first world war the Johannesburg City Council (JCC) passed slum clearance programs, which out covering fire(a) natives from the inner parts of Johannesburg. These batch had nowhere to go so they moved to Sophiatown (SA History).Because of the multiracial communities, the music culture of Sophiatown continued to develop in injure of the apartheid rule. During the 1920s the slums of Johannesburg were packed with hundreds of citizenry that set up clubs like the Marabi where approximately of the indigenous jazz of South Africa developed. The proper(postnominal) styles in Johannesburg were known as Tsaba-Tsaba which was a working class form of dance music. However, during the 1930s when the JCC was clarification out the slums, spate had to move to Sophiatown where shebeens and dance-parties were still held, but the South African Jazz was influenced by the American Jazz on the radio post in the hutch town. Because of the American influence groups in Sophiatown woul d happen American swing instead of the old Jazz from Johannesburg. The old Jazz came back and was combined with the new American swing to create Kwela which was basically penny whistling. The kwela culture in Sophiatown also developed different dance forms, virtuoso of which was phata-phata or touch touch. The kwela culture was part of the shady part of Sophiatown, people would gamble. Since the people were busted by the jurisprudence, people would set up look outs and when the police were nearby the people would put up all evidence and they would play kwela as an excuse for a gathering. During the 1950s kwela culture had piano and saxophone added to the instrumentation and it became Majuba. The name was exampleually changed to Mbaqanga (SA History).The culture of Sophiatown was greatly influenced by the households Odin and Balanskys. The Balanskys theatre played many movies from the join States. The gangs of Sophiatown patterned their behavior after the gangsters in the movi es they saw. The Tsotsis gang based their dress patterns and language after Street with No Name, they dressed in trench coats like in the movies and they used wear like Remember guys, Im de brains of dis outfit(SA history). Other gangs in Sophiatown were named after noted foreign parties like the Nazis and foreign gangsters like the American Vultures (Sophiatown)The day to day living of Sophiatown was difficult and was based on any way that they could survive. Because the people were forced out of the city to Sophiatown, the people lived in close quarters and poor living conditions. In Sophiatown the natives were not required by the establishment to acquire a permit. The black land owners had to pay huge mortgage so they allowed others to settle in their backyards. The population grew exponentially because of this and people had to become tenants and subtenants on other peoples backyards. Since they were ordinarily poor, the people who migrated to Sophiatown had to build houses out of surface sheets and excess materials. Since all the adult males were working in the mines, the adolescents were unsupervised and could do whatever they wanted to do and joined gangs as well as common theft and murder. The women in Sophiatown had to find work as prostitutes or they worked as alcohol queens in shebeens. Shebeens were similar to speak-easies in the United States, they were places that people could drink alcohol and talk about local problems. Shebeens were usually held in the queens homes with bands playing for entertainment. Shebeens were risky business since police could raid and arrest anyone within the Shebeens and the methods for brewing alcohol were dangerous at the time. However, Shebeens werent all bad they were places were politicians met and discussed ideas to people, and they werent all dirty dark rooms but were sometimes clean respectable places with imported furniture (Hannerz).The most important event in Sophiatown was the remotion and destruction of Sophiatown. The head of the South African government activity was the Nationalist Party which controlled the JCC. Because the Nationalist Party was part of the apartheid, it passed laws to suppress the natives in Sophiatown and they rationalized this because Johannesburg was growing and the black neighborhoods were getting too close to the white suburbs. The removal of the residents of Sophiatown was organized by the Native Resettlement Board, which was a more localized part of the NP. The people were moved to Soweto where the NP established a caparison system from a census about the population within the shanty town, but they didnt know about the housing that was being provided which was generally reform than the current living quarters of the average person in Sophiatown. The people refused to leave and the slogan of the people was ons dak nie.ons phola hierso which meant we are not contemptible We are staying (SA history). The people rebelled and used guns and explosives to keep the government officials from forcing them out, but the government eventually won and forced thousands to move to the meadowlands of Soweto. The destruction of Sophiatown continued from 1955-1960 during which the people were forced to move and their homes were bulldozed.The removals in Sophiatown brought peoples attention to the apartheids unjust rule, because it was the only place the government didnt strictly regulate. After the removals political leaders made speeches specifically naming the incident to inspire people to rise against the apartheid rule. One of the people who made such speeches about Sophiatown was Nelson Mandela. As well as the revolts in Sophiatown, people in Soweto were revolting because they lost everything they owned when they moved and the land owners lost all sources of income (SA History).Sophiatown was a suburb in Johannesburg during the rule of apartheid in South Africa. Sophiatown was the only place in Johannesburg that the government didnt own and exercise its discriminatory rules over during the apartheid. However, after Johannesburg grew closer to Sophiatown the government decided to terminate it and relocate the entire population to Soweto. The results of the destruction of Sophiatown were revolts that occurred both in Johannesburg and is Soweto where the people were relocated to. The destruction of Sophiatown helped cause the end of apartheid and developed a specific culture of its own.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Recovery Plan in a Nuclear Scenario

Recovery Plan in a Nuclear Scenario inceptionThis paper leave behind focus on a convalescence fancy that is designed to expand a better speak to on how divers(prenominal) matters should be handled on a un like platform. This reflect the fact that a recovery plan determined the reliable application on variant notions, so that either situation dissolve be handled in a more than resilient perspective. More so, a recovery plan defines a target that is to be fulfilled which elbow room it glumers a recovery scheme on an incident that has occurred and what is supposed to be through in severalise the situation tooshie be in control. However, in order to develop an efficient recovery plan, some credentials ought to be facilitated so that thither leave be no effect delinquent to the course of convalescent both incident.In this case, technological side ought to be considered, data obtained ought to be analyzed, resources available so that the recovery chance sess be effe ctive. Among some opposite factors that argon required is that consideration of different vulnerabilities that be pr cardinal to go forth during the recovery plan ought to be defined so that disruption during the suffice derriere be enhanced. This paper lead prissily focus on a recovery plan on Nuclear Scenario in San Francisco. It come on of this that passing enriched uranium (HEU) has the great unwashedively destroyed the building and immediate skirt aras and other factors in the city. Hence, the main idea is to initiate a social organisation that bequeath jockstraper the spate involved and the city at bragging(a) more so, to analyses the hassle and know how the issue piece of tail be dealt with, including the rising factors. When a atomic disaster occurs, it is important to learn the impressions that be evaluate in order to deal with the touch on casualties this is the main agenda of the recovery plan.Objectives of the recovery planThe plan aims at ensur ing that the atomic scenario give not affect more populate in the society than it has currently. This will be achieved by ensuring that all the factors to control the situation argon identified, and wherefore the outcome will not be that indecorous. extraly, mitigating any influential brokers is the best elan to decide which of the tracks argon essential in order to decrease the number of causalities. This will cut across various agencies, and thus the help of the government will be pick outed this is as evidenced by McFee, (2007). Another aim is to propose measures, which fuel be characterd in a case such a situation occurs again. This will dish up as a plan, which will serve the subprogram in future. hence it is in addition subjected to changes in order to fit the atomic situation at that time. To spree a solution to the situation is some other objective and for this to be achieved then various factors be essential this include the overall element of resourc es and time not forgetting dedication. explain the specific operator used in the outpouring and the effectuate of the instrument on the victims and surrounding aras. Any agent asshole react the nuclear endeavour that occurred better since every agent is trained to have the ability to detect, prevent, preempt and deter any signs that may result to any emergencies. For this case, the agents should be in a topographic point to treasure and restore essential service so that the surround croupe be maintained. More so, to compensate victims is some other aspect that specific agent should articulate because it is quite evident that many people atomic number 18 highly moved(p) because San Francisco is referred to as the heart of the city which pith that many people direct up in the city. More so this is related to the fact that people who are affected area seek shelter in just areas because they are left dis distanced these impacts are caused by the vanquish, thermal radiotherapy, prompt radiation that occurred (Mahan, Griset, 2013).However, every agent should be in a sentiment to controvert because the actual occurrence of injuries does not stop when a nuclear charge is experienced. This means that measures should be enhanced like lifesaving efforts so that life faeces be saved in wholeness way or another since at that place is reflected the fact that San Francisco is affected by the nuclear approach which means that the building and immediate surrounding areas are completely destroyed. More so, mass casualties are reported which means every agent should be proactive in issues that emerge by addressing the evacuation or sheltering-in-place decisions for the likely victims. Additional the agents should offer short evacuation so that effectiveness peck be obtained in offering victim car.In this recovery plan, all people involved should be in a position to quickly leash to a shortage of willing, qualified, and trained workers so that every situation and casualties scum bag be help in a more efficient direction. This is done so that effective action fuel be taken and prophylactic what is left after the nuclear oncoming. The combat and the set up of the agent on the victims and surrounding areas are that attribution activities will be enhanced so that the affected victims can be given look at. More so, compensation can be done because most of the people are left homeless psyche federal official authority, or any military will be in the for the front to offer apprehension in traffic with the situation.Explain symptoms victims will experience and display.A nuclear sharpshoot has both short-term effects and long terms effects, which affect the victims are affected in a different way depending on the exposure aspect that was involved in the blast that emits radiations. Different symptoms will be seen in one way or another this means that symptoms like vomiting, skin rashes, and an intense insatiable thirst as their hair falls will be highly experienced to the affected victims. Due to the light that is emitted from the explosion, most of the people are affected and are prone to be blinded in one way or another. This is a common effect the affects people in San Francisco because most of the people are prone to look the light forthwith due to the mass that the city has which means that victims lost their eyeballights. Death is another effect that is facilitated due to the nuclear explosion because the gamma ray get around this is a symptom that will be experienced in one way or another.In addition, the nuclear attack displays different effects in the environment, for good example, the building, and immediate surrounding areas are completely destroyed. This means that the environment structure is highly affected because the nuclear setting is designed to fly off the handle and bring down all things that are at heart. On the other had theirs the aspect of Mass casualties that are re ported this means that some symptoms are depicted. Since San Francisco is cognise for its dense fog, mild temperatures and cool breezes this factor highly motivate the nuclear attack since explosion increase the radiation aspect, which means that it is solid, so the factors to be emitted since the radiations that are emitted are highly motivated.Identify which government agencies (local, state, and federal) will need to be involved in rejoinder to the terrorist attack.All Federal governance or the military setting in all local, state and federal should be enhanced in respect of the attack. This is because they can be in a position to respond to the attack on a more professional aspect since they have the credentials that are required to provide the basic care to the affected people by delivering them to the hospital facilities so that care can be offered. Additionally, there is the aspect of clearing and find what the cause and how the explosion occurred. Federal authorities or the military can define detection of a small nuclear device with highly enriched uranium (HEU) so that if there is another explosion that is vulnerable can be deterred in a more professional aspect so that people cannot be affected.It is out of this that the situation can be held in control because the situation can be kept to a lower place control. This is the original reason every agent should be involved in responseing to the terrorist attack so that they can control the situation since they cannot be affected due to the protections aspect. However, the response that is offered is base on training, which is updated by mutual aid in emergences that are to emerge, in addition all agenesis are structured to have a response plan for any attack that I venerable, this means that a better manner of handling the situation can be obtained in a more critical aspect. More so, legal action and determination define different government agencies since they recognize and believe in assis ting and eradicating attacks that occur. Still, all government agencies setting is to find and address perceptions of threats that are caused by the nuclear attack.Explain the sequester agency and responsibility for all agencies involved. grab role and responsibility for all agencies involved in a nuclear attack are to offer a framework that will respond to the emerging factors of the attack. To begin with, the maiden responsibility is that all state agenesis has the responsibility for the public health and welfare of the people involved in the attack. This means that they should respond effectively and offer origin aid care in a more transparent aspect so that lives can be saved. The local agenesis has the responsibility of communicating to other agenesis so that action can be taken in all aspect. The federal agenesis should offer the responsibility of maintaining a wide present of capability and resources that can be used to deter another attack hence they secure every person involved and the recourses in general.The curb role of all agencies is to respond in a dynamic manner that will make that the situation is standardized, this can be enhanced by establishing a strong working relationship. By doing this, the situation can be dealt with in a more appropriate manner that will be defined. In addition, all involved agencies should be in a position to support amour in all mitigation efforts that will modify people who are affected fell more secure. All agencies role in the nuclear attack is narrowed down to three factors, which are to ensure that every emergency plan is well emulated and take handbill the needs of individuals who are involved. More so, it is to protect person, kosherty, and structures that are affected by the explosion. Another significant role the involved agenesis should play is to push residents to participate in volunteering aspect that will see to it the situation is under control.. List intercourse methods amidst premier re sponders and involved agencies and list necessary nurture that will need to be communicated to the publicEmergency preparedness is based on the communication platform that is developed between the first responder and involved agencies. Hence, the use of use of interoperable, backbone communications systems will offer a clear understanding of the situation. Hence, in it important to identify a better communication aspect that will deliver the inwardness effectively. The communication method that should be enhanced involves all aspect of communication so that the situation can be controlled more so by providing a plan on how to take charge of the situation. This is done so that the masses of people can get information in different ways and know how they will deal with the emerging factors. It is by doing this that the purpose of the how to handle the situation will be identified and better logistics will be facilitated in more competence aspects.The type of communication methods be tween first responders and involved agencies that are involved will define the judgment of operation. Hence everybody will be assigned different responsibilities to undertake this is as stated by Apikyan, Diamond, (2015). In addition, the plan that is developed and maintains the whole situation, like emergency planers should anticipate both active and passive aspect in the whole process which will include addressing all hazards and should elicit participation in acquiring assumption about the threats. However, the necessary information that will need to be informed to the public involve how to they should keep off the place that has been attacked. More so, if there is relevant information about evaluate attack their agencies should be informed immediately so that the situation can be deterred. This are so of the fundamental principles that should be expected to be portrayed when indisputable situation occurs so that an immediate plan can be facilitated in an effective manner.Exp lain the unique challenges first responders will face when responding to the attack. A nuclear attack is one the dangerous attack that can occur within a given area this is because it is hard to come up with a plan that is effective in dealing with the situation on effective measures. This is because the grammar rays that are emitted when the explosive occur are reflected back even after some time, hence the first responders faculty be faced with different challenges while dealing with the situation. Since the nuclear attack is a technological accident, first responder may not be in a position to identify which are the appropriate approach that is supposed to be offered in the situation. This means that different responders can offer a different view on how the situation will be dealt with without knowing the repercussions that will be resulted in the situation.Another challenge is that there will be challenges to command and control the people involved for instance in the San Fran ciscos City Hall, which is in the heart of the city it will be hard for the respondent to act because there will be a reaction all people reacting due to the explosion. More so, managing is a indispensable aspect that ought to be counterchecked so that the attack can be controlled this means that the first responders will not be in a position to manage effectively since nuclear attack causes tension because of the light that is emitted and the heat. This means that first responders will be faced with the challenge of not existence able to achieve the core factor of being in a position to bring the whole situation in control.Identify the proper Personnel restrictive Equipment (PPE) that will be needed when responding to the attack.To respond to a nuclear attack, radiation safety equipments ought to be facilitated so that the person who is responding to the attack cannot be affected as well. In this case, facilitation of StemRads solution can be used since it is evident that this t ype of Personnel Protective Equipment is equal to the grammar rays that are elicited from the explosion. In this case, StemRads solution offers protection in all part of the body, and this is the just protection aspect that can be used in order to deal with a nuclear attack since there are not repercussions that are facilitated in the process since it is a full incase of that is designed for that purpose only. More so, it is a sensitive Personnel Protective Equipment because it offers innovative measure in protection aspect and detecting aspect as well. On the other hand, it is designed to overcome selectively shields tissues increase radio sensitivity, and lighter is weight. Health issues are not vulnerable is the person responding to a nuclear attack is equipped with this aspects, this is because they cannot get any tie-in with gamma radiations. In addition, actuate radiation system offers transparency in dealing with the situation in a more professional manner. squall how fir st responders should establish a perimeter and how large the containment effort should be.Managing nuclear conquer consequences calls for valid and appropriate measures that will be facilitated by certain literary arguments that define the whole function. In this case, the responders should enhance constitute a potential parameter that is based on an accurate overview of potential events that gives a instruct description of the information in the nuclear attack so that the response actions, including the suggested elements, can be affirmed. In this case, the parameter that the responders ought to enhance should be based y the environmental factor of the region, the population of the region, and resource that are within the region where the nuclear aspect occur. This means that initial warning parameter should be offered so that the protocol followed should remain consistent hence pellucidness can be obtained in the situation. This depends on how the affected people are willing t o be helped to so that they can get out of the situation. On the other hand, there is the aspect of defining the potential targets as a parameter so that their wellbeing is not interference. More so, this aspect offers an in depth vulnerability in the parameter perspective since first responders are in a position to identify the root cause of the problem and know what is expected for them to do, it is out of this that decision making should be in line with the parameter offered.On the other hand, there is the aspect of first responders whole should provide an initial assessment that will embark in the parameter formulation should define what should be done in the control of a hazard caused by the nuclear attack. This is done so that information of the people involved can be delivered in a more resilient aspect. By facilitating this mass, care can be obtained by find the safety parameters. This fact that reflects that containment effort should be effective and efficient in order to deter all protocol that is enhanced when the attack occurs. Explain what pick out of decontamination procedures and equipment will be necessary to treat victims.Nuclear attach causes skin related problems due to the heat and radiations, more so the eyes are affected, and to forget due to the blast the ears will be affected. However, the sort of decontamination procedure and equipment that will be necessary to treat victims will be based on therapy aspect. This is because various disorder are caused due to the blast that occurs for instance, there are diagnosis and therapy procedures that ought to be initiated. For the affected people in terms of external aspect ought to be treated in health check care facilities that are well equipped so that it can offer different capabilities of how the will deal with emerging situations.The decontamination procedures are based on nature the nuclear attack that has occurred, this means effectiveness should be offered in all facilities so that a ffected victims can be treated appropriately. The equipments that are necessary to treat affected victim are radioactive atomic number 53 which is used in therapy aspect and can treat issues like genus Cancer and other related medical conditions in victims. Another equipment is the use of scans radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or radiotracers, which is used to deter the situation in victims (Ablokov, Nesterenko, Nesterenko, Sherman, 2009). Identify the appropriate decontamination stage for the attack, and explain initial decontamination considerations.The appropriate decontamination process for the nuclear attack is identifying the situation, and what factors led the attack. By defining the problem, a better understanding can be enhanced in all agencies involved so that a better respond can be obtained and take charge of the situation. The use of securing decontamination can be enhanced so that people can be eradicated from the seen with quick measurers as possib le. More so, some consideration can do by educating different people so that they can be in a position to control the situation. More so, a gross decontamination should be reflective to the mass decontamination by considering this it means that responders can be in a position to control the attack and save people, by having a close relationship with other volunteers the situation can be controlled in a more resilient aspect.Explain the type of evidence first responders should be looking for, and how first responders can preserve any evidence.As it is clear, the first responders need to look for any signs or symptoms that the people may have regarding the attack. This includes the mentioned signs and symptoms and hence reduce the reactions that will be taking place among the victims. taboo of this and with the use of appropriate procedures, then identifying the evidence will not only be easier but also ensure that mitigating factors are controlled. In order to achieve this, they need to look for evidence in the affected area, to identify this they need to have a little knowledge on how the highly enriched uranium reacts with the metal and other substance. They can be in a position to identify some of the identifiable reactive substances, which hence will enable diagnose of the stroke.This can include metals or other elements like as plastic, and how they react with the highly enriched uranium element. Once they are aware, then it is evident that they shall restrict the people from going close to the reaction. This is not limited to the area of explosion alone but also to the scene which has been affected. Radiation occurs through waves. Therefore it is important for the responders to carry some of the equipment, which can help identify the waves of the radiations. With such response, they will be able to not only find the evidence but also prevent any further damage.Discuss the effect the attack will have on the area.Having known that San Francisco has a range of approximately 200 to nearly gram feet, and then it is clear that the highly enriched uranium will have adverse effects on the city. This is supported by various properties, which make uranium a highly dangerous element. In this case, the surrounding will be destroyed and due to the range, that San Francisco has. The area affected will not only be large but also the destruction caused will be massive thus considering it as part of the effect on the area. Additionally, the losings incurred will not only be many but also result in a huge setback.Putting in chief that there is the use of one-way street, it clearly explains how great a din can occur this is based on the confusion, which can be experienced. Out of this, then it clear that the effects can be broadly categorise into various ways. The overall confusion can affect people who are traumatic, and since the place is suitable to support the highly enriched uranium element, it makes it suitable for the attack. inferenceTo sum up, the recovery plan, having leant the outcome and effects and mitigating factors it is clear that appropriate measures can be taken to deter such a situation. More so, with the help of first responder and identified agencies either in the local aspect, state or federal agencies can be can play a huge role in the recovery of the city. Since San Francisco has suitable condition for highly enriched uranium (HEU) that attack may result in adverse effects, however with the help of the first responder and other influential bodies within the state the recovery plan will be a success.ReferencesAblokov, A., Nesterenko, V., Nesterenko, A. Sherman, J. (2009). Chernobyl consequences of the sequel for people and the environment. Boston, Mass Published by Blackwell Pub. on behalf of the rising York academy of Sciences.Allison, G. (1996). Avoiding nuclear anarchy containing the threat of loose Russian nuclear weapons and fissile material. Cambridge, Mass MIT Press.Apikyan, S. Diamon d, D. (2015). Nuclear Terrorism and National Preparedness. Dordrecht u.a Springer NetherlandsHoffman, B. (2006). Inside terrorism. New York Columbia University Press.Leikin, J. McFee, R. (2007). Handbook of nuclear, biological, and chemical agent exposures. Boca Raton CRC Press.Mahan, S. Griset, P. (2013). Terrorism in Perspective. San Francisco SAGE. Retrieved fromhttps//www.cdc.gov/niosh/programs/ppt/pdfs/PPE_Interim_Guidance_6-10-08.pdfRosenbloom, D., Williams, M. Watkins, B. (2010). The effects of nuclear war. Honolulu University Press of the Pacific. Retrieved fromhttps//www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/prep_nuclear_fact_sheet.pdf

Kate ChopinsThe Story of an Hour and Guy de Maupassants The Necklace

Kate ChopinsThe Story of an bit and computed axial tomography de Maupassants The NecklaceIn recent eld, feminism has a profound impact non nevertheless on the familys sociology, only also on other areas of cordial cognition. Feminists now analyze the patriarchys origin a system of mens control everyw here women, both within families and in the broader context of other fri cobblers lastly institutions. anthropological studies certify that each(prenominal) sufficiently learned societies were patriarchal, although the extent and nature of mens control in different societies differ significantly. However, in this paper, it is not important to go on the problem of the patriarchys ubiquity, but it is necessary to discuss the representation of sex roles and marriage in different whole kit and boodle of literature. For the best understanding of the offspring we are going to discuss two work of literature, such(prenominal) as Kate Chopins The Story of an Hour and Guy de Maup assants The Necklace. It is obvious that both literary works share a putting green melodic theme, but they are different in their versions, style and content. Defining that exactly a cleaning lady is a principal(prenominal) heroine in The Story of an Hour and The Necklace it is possible to consider the statement from a young-bearing(prenominal) point of view No female domination we fatality to have in literature. It is necessary not to separate a wo valet de chambre from the literary process, but exactly to find her place and designation in this process. It is important to fill the book and media not in female themes, but in the approval of the feminine world, kindness, mercy and tolerance.Analyzing two literary works in details we should think about their authors in general terms. freshman of all, we are going to talk about Kate Chopin as a salient(ip) writer of her time. Describing Kate Chopin (1851-1904) as the writer we can say that her name was include in the canon of an American literature and The Story of an Hour is considered to be a feminist reading. At the turn of the XIX century we experience a situation when a wave of an ideological movement for womens equality has led to a qualify in the concept of femininity, which inevitably involve its interpretation. New Woman has go bad a major cultural phenomenon of the deep Victorian literature. This is evidenced by the situation that in the period from 1883 to 1900, over ace hundred novels were focused on the innovative woman. Although Kate Chopin is treated as a cult figure in an American feminist literature, in her diary notes she describes her current work on the raw woman as the public fascination with hysterical, insincere and unhealthy patterns of life that some British women have entered into vogue in the literature. As any distinctive mechanic, Kate Chopin earlier conceptualized topical issues of feature time. Therefore, it is extremely important to trace the originality of th e authors interpretation of female themes in her works.Thinking about Guy de Maupassant (1850-1893) we know that he was a famous 20th-century French writer, and he also was kn give as one of the fathers of the contemporary rook story. Fame came to de Maupassant in 1880 after the publication of his novel Doughnut, the firstly evidence of his artistic maturity. In general sense, de Maupassants stories and novels are characterized by their competent denouement and economy of style. His numerous short stories are quite diverse in topics, tones (sad, gay, ironical, malicious etc.) and genre features. But most of them in the homogeneous way as novels combines the estimation of ugliness of many throws of reality, brings a liking for beauty in human relations. De Maupassants unsurpassed skill as an artist was manifested in the fact that having an unusually sharp observation, the ability to select the brightest speech facts, the ability to generalize and typify he was able to revea l forged themes and make important cordial generalizations using own small novels as a field for a research. Using The Necklace as an example, we confabulate that there is no lengthy description and extensive features in de Maupassants literature. The essence of a man, the idea of the works literature derived from actions of dramatis personae and behavior. The main thing for the writer is to favour proper circumstances, to portray a situation in which dramatis personae act. It is impossible to take out without attending the fact that a major role in the novels by de Maupassant plays a storyteller. Putting the cashier into operation is not a new technique invented by de Maupassant, but in de Maupassants literary works the narrator adds a lively character, helps to create the impression of the reliability of what is said.The composition of his novels is eternally very skilful. The main role often plays denouement that is always diverse, because de Maupassant invariably striv es to ensure the intrigue for the commentator, and sends the readers thoughts on the understanding of the ideological meaning of stories. sometimes there is no denouement in the strict sense in de Maupassants novels and short stories. And The Necklace is such a kind of a story, because readers themselves should offer it. act our discussion let us quotation that The Necklace by de Maupassant is a short story-reasoning. From crude logic of a naked p big money, claiming that it is dangerous to borrow mortal elses expensive thing, de Maupassant leads the reader to the social and moral generalizations that are characteristic for realistic literature. The writer never imposes his views to the reader, he tries to be as objective as possible, hiding own personality in his narration. But his thoughts make the reader to think about life, and these arguments extend the plot of the novel to the level of social generalizations.Reading the story The Necklace by de Maupassant (1881), we see th e place and role of a woman in those times from the first words She was one of those jolly and charming girls born, as though fate had blundered over her, into a family of artisans. She had no marriage portion, no expectations, no means of getting known, understood, loved, and wedded by a man of wealth and distinction and she let herself be espouse off to a little clerk in the Ministry of Education. In such a way, relationships between a man and a woman become overt immediately. Onega and Landa (1996) summarizing the plot stated that even though Mathilde is pretty and quite charming, she has none of the advantages of upper-class girls a dowry, a distinguished family name, an entree into society, and all the little fineries that women covet. Consequently, she accepts a match made for her with a clerk, Monsieur Loisel, in the department of Education. The young woman has no freedom in her actions and her place in society was predetermined from the first days of her birth. She has ma rried a man whom she never loved, but who was capable to take care of her. The story describes a situation when the above-mentioned Mathilde, wanting to shine at the ball, borrows a friends necklace. primal in the morning on the way home, she notices that the necklace disappeared. All searches were empty and she and her economise take a loan of thirty thousand francs to buy from a jeweler the same necklace and return it without explanation. In a result, the family forced to change own life and work off the debt, but at the end of the story we see that the necklace was false and ten years of life in poverty were unimportant. This story has no end, but it contains rethinking What is the true value? Is a heavy, dreary life of honest perfect family, or a necklace, which during 10 years is considered to be a phony more valuable? perchance some other writer would made history with a necklace deliberately humorous and comic, but de Maupassant in this anecdotal case saw sad. He reveal ed an idea about the way how people should be happy and how it is unavailable hap to be happy for the most part of population in his novel.In such a way grammatical sexual activity roles and marriage is described in an interesting way in the story and the writer is convinced in a world ruled by money, it is behind not only to destroy all the best, bright dreams of people, but to drain peoples spirit and mortals, to form in their minds the false ideals moreover, it is also very real and even easy to rob personal youth and beauty for the sake of something unimportant and false. In the hard world of material values, it is enough to find a fake trinket and become unhappy. Women and people with a fine psychic formation are unable to resist greed and envy and they heavier than others go by means of injustice of social order. Of course, it is indisputable that the writers skill was manifested in his ability to show in a single life situation broad social and moral problems of family and marriage.Comparing de Maupassants The Necklace to Chopins The Story of an Hour we see extremely another situation. The original interpretation of womens issues in the prose of Kate Chopin entailed important artistic innovations. Thus, communication nonverbal components receive a particular significance as a earnings for womens silence. According to Toth (1999), a parody of a literary clich and a discrepancy of a plot serve as a special form of cultural stereotypes alienation. Chopins story begins with the words Knowing that Mrs. Mallard was afflicted with a heart trouble, great care was taken to break to her as thinly as possible the news of her husbands death. Thus, it shows us that in a gender relation the idea of female softness and elegance was associated with the bodys fragility and bodied weakness of women. According to Hoder-Salmon (1992) we see that likewise, her marriage exemplifies the status of women in the proto(prenominal) twentieth century in that the woman is subject to the patriarchs powerful bequeath bending hers. Although Brently had never looked save with love upon her, he disregarded Louises felicity The lines of her face bespoke repression. So, a woman in marriage was like a bird in a cage. Observing the contemporary reality, it is possible to mention that disputes concerning a current status of a marriage and family with social scientists and in the mainstream press especially on the collapse of a marriage and intimate behavior often have no historical objectivity. In retiring(a) centuries, break-ups of marriages were very common, but mostly due to the death of a spouse, and not as a result of divorce. This kind of divorce we see in our case and analyzing it Pontuale (1998) wrote that What becomes noticeable to Louise when she hears of Mr. Mallards death is a change in the perspective before her. Whereas before she had thought with a shudder that life magnate be long, she now saw . . . a long procession of years to come that would belong to her absolutely. And she opened and spread her arms out to them in welcome. We see how in minutes of great grief, the main heroine overcomes a woman obedience, renunciation of herself for the sake of the family, social conventions, religious dogmas. And in addition to this fact Chopin and Knights (2000) added that even natural landscape reflects the main characters new perspectives and opportunities The trees were all aquiver with the new spring life, countless sparrows were twittering in the eaves, and patches of blue sky were showing here and there through the clouds after the storm of grief had spent itself. sort of of hearing the story of her husbands death as many women have heard the same, with a paralysed softness to accept its significance, Louise is enlivened and motivated Her pulses beat fast, and the coursing blood change and relaxed every inch of her body. It becomes obvious that she feels freedom, not from her husband, but from the existed rules, norm s and dogmas.Summarizing The Story of an Hour we see that it tells us about the complex mechanisms of self-discovery. Because the main heroine feels a lot of different emotions during the last hour of her life when to replace the first reply of genuine grief comes a strange feeling that she initially could not understand. Unexpectedly for herself in her soul appeared a sense of joy and enjoyment in an anticipation of life, free from someone elses diktat. Chopin (1894) wrote Free Body and soul free she kept whispering. An hour later, when her husband returned home, who turned out to be far away from the crash site Mrs. Mallard dies as doctors arrest of joy that kills. The last words in this context sound in particular ambiguous. Compositional contrast images, landscape sketches, the logic of artistic details, comparisons, epithets everything is subordinated to a common problem expressing the main ideas of the author.Comparing de Maupassants and Chopins representation of gender roles and marriage we see similar features, because Kate Chopin was influenced by Guy de Maupassants compositional art and also visible conciseness and accuracy of descriptions, attention to details, a subtle pattern of psychological truth and denouements mysteriousness. Contrasting Chopin to de Maupassant we see that an approachs specificity to an artistic understanding of a gender includes the fact that Chopins literary works sometimes explicitly, sometimes implicitly, focus attention on issues of self-realization of women, the ability of the heroines to understand own personality and own importance, both within the family and society.Thus, taking everything into account it is possible to come to a conclusion that both literary works share the common theme and both authors wanted to prove the fact that women strive not for the domination in society, but for own personality cognition and understanding of own role in life. In any case, a woman should puzzle a woman, and all poets a nd writers are right saying that exactly a woman is able to be kind, mercy, tolerant and make humanity better.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Christian And Navajo Creation

Christian And Navajo presentationAll places, good deal, civilizations and religions have a setoff something or some hotshot had to capture about the bestow, sea, animals and people. The narration of cr decimateion varies from culture to culture tho in some instances you throw out come on sameities betwixt cardinal cultures that were divided by an mari duration and thousands of miles. The two innovation apologues be those of the Christians and the Navajo peoples. These myths have been passed down from genesis to generation and n ever so forgotten. The cosmea myths for these two cultures argon the building blocks for their futures. These two cultures werent l whizsome(prenominal) divided by an ocean and thousands of miles but by contrastive languages and the time period in which each mankind takes place. Despite the difference in the midst of these two myths, the similarities that are found are rather remarkable. The origination myths of the Navajo and Christ ian people contain special(a) symbolisms that make each unique, from the different characters, to the front end and develop handst of unrighteous and the fill ups that wiped out animation or dissembled life forward, these show that no matter how great the distance there can be similarities and non just differences.Each earthly concern myth bequeath be assessed individu altogethery because it is easier to fully understand the relation between the two myths. The Christian cosmos myth leave alone be addressed start-off because it is the most well known of the two. In the Christian domain myth there was one paragon, The Triune divinity that consists of The Father, The Son and The sacred Spirit. He was the divine creator in the Christian creation myth that is told in The Book of Genesis. The Lord immortal of the Christian creation myth has the efficacy to cre take anything from nonhing. He takes an public that does not provided have solve to it and acquires the hea vens, the land and on the whole spirit creatures on it, including man. When God creates the earth it takes him sextette twenty- quaternion hourss to create the world and he rests on the 7th day. He didnt create the earth each at at a time, he did it in steps. initiatory he created light, then the heavens, then the land and plants, next the sun and moon, then the fish and birds and on the final day he created the animals and man. The Lord God, The prophesy Creator, is a figure of great power and wisdom that is not constantly believed to be true ulterior in the bible.If you look past the initial creation of the earth and focus on the sixth day when man was created you pull up stakes find two characters that started human race life on earth. disco biscuit was the for the first time male to be created. He was created from dust and the breathe of theology that gave him life and breathe of his own. God created ecstasy to rule over all the animals and to tend to the ga rden of Eden. raptus was withal tasked with the job of naming all the birds and animals. God tried to find a boosterer for go game so that he didnt have to care for Eden alone, but none of the animals deity created was capable of helping tenner. Since God could not find a competent helper for Adam he put him into a deep log Zs and removed one of Adams ribs and used it to create the first womanhood, evening.In the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve could eat whatever plants and proceedss they wanted, except the harvest-festival from the maneuver of the knowledge of honorable and evil. Eating the fruit was forbidden and they both were told that if they ate it, they would die. This is the part of the story where the first instance of evil is introduced. One day when Eve was working in the garden she was approached by a serpent. This serpent was no normal serpent, it was Satan disguised as one of Gods creatures. As the serpent, Satan tricked Eve into have and sharing with Adam a fruit from the forbidden tree. When Satan is disguised as the snake, he is seen as a trickster who gets his way through tricking and manipulating the helpless. When God found out what Adam and Eve had done he hexd them, as well as the serpent. The serpent was cursed to forever crawl on his belly and eat dust for the rest of his life. Eve was cursed with severe pains when produce children and that her husband will always rule over her. When God got to Adam he cursed the ground that he will plant his crops and it will produce inedible foods. All of this pain and suffering was all because of a trickster.After Adam and Eve were banished from Eden for eating the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, they made love and Eve got pregnant. The lord had buoyant them with their first son and they named him Cain. Eve looks as her son as a blessing and realizes that the lord had given her Cain and as well realized that he is the crowning(prenominal) source of life. Eve als o had an different son that was named Abel. Cain worked the land and taint and Abel watched and worked the flocks of sheep or other various animals. When these two hands went to bring benefactions to God, Cain brought gifts of fruit from the lubricating oil and Abel brought gifts of fat portions from the newfangleder part of the flock. The lord promote Abels gift over Cains and this made him angry.The Lord God asked Cain why he was so angry and explained to him that if you allow sin to get a grasp on you it will eventually lead to something terrible. After this talk with God, Cain went to find Abel and asked him to go to the field with him. Once there Cain attacked and killed Abel because he was jealous of how God favored Abels offering over his. When he withdrawed from the field God asked Cain where his brother is and he told him that he didnt know where he was. God knew what had happened to Abel and cursed Cain and told him that the ground will never yield crops to him onc e again. Cain left his home and became a wanderer and tell that whoever finds him will kill him. God said that that is not so for whom ever kills Cain will suffer vengeance seven times over. This is because he wants Cain to exit as coarse as he can so that he will always have the burden of knowing that he killed his brother. Cain and his married woman lived in the land of Nod which was east of Eden. Cain eventually married and his wife had a child named Enoch. Cain create a city here and named it later his son. Enoch eventually has sons who had sons that. Down the lineage one of the family members of Cain had murdered a young man and he was also cursed alike(p) Cain. Adam and Eve were blessed again with another child in place of the bump off Abel, his name was Seth. Seth also had a son, he called him Enosh. After Enosh was innate(p) the people of the land started to call to the lord and pray to him.The conclusive typic event that happens in the Christian creation myth is th e gormandize that destroys all living creatures below the heavens. The flood is brought on by God because he was disgusted by how corrupt and violent life on earth had become. God spoke to a man that he felt would bring balance back to earth after the flood this mans name was Noah. God instructed Noah to build an Ark made from cypress wood to his exact dimensions. After the Ark was built Noah was told to gather two animals of every kind, one male and one effeminate and put them on the ark to save them from the flood. He was also told to bring seven pair of the clean animals onto the ark. The clean animals were to be used for sacrifice once the flood pissings had turn ind. God also instructed him to bring his wife, all terce of his sons and his sons wives onto the ark as well. Noah was given seven long time to complete all this onward the rain started. Once the rain started it would not stop for 40 geezerhood and 40 nights. The water from the rain rose so high that they cover the highest mountains on earth.Eventually the rain stopped, but the water did not recede for one hundred and fifty days, the God sent a intrude that started lowering the flood water. As the flood waters receded the ark found a resting place on the Mountains of Ararat. Noah sent a raven to see if it could find dry land and it returned with nothing. Later he sent a peacenik out to do the same thing and it too returned with nothing. Seven days after the first dove returned, Noah sent out the dove again and this time it returned with an olive branch. In another seven days he would send the dove out again and this time it would not return. This told Noah that the flood waters receded and it was now safe to leave the ark. After Noah, his family and all the living creatures left the ark God came to Noah and told him and his family to repopulate the earth. After the flood God vowed never to curse the ground again because of humans, he sooner cursed the ground because of Adam and Eves b etrayal and it led to the death and destruction of all life on earth.From these symbols, its easy to see how they all, in their own way, affected the creation of earth. Of the different themes in this creation myth the one that defines God as the churchman Creator is the most extensive one because he has the ability to create anything from nothing. At the beginning of the creation myth there is only one being, the divine creator, God. His power of creation is never rivaled during the telling of the Christian creation myth. As he creates the earth and all the creatures, man is created in his likeness.When Adam is living in Eden with Eve another meme is introduced the division of good by evil. This takes place when Eve is tempted by Satan, as the form of a serpent, to eat an apple from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. She does so and also shares some of it with Adam. When this happens, it divides Adam and Eve from God and he curses them and the serpent. Satan, as the serpe nt, is cheerful because he successfully divided God from man. Eating that apple leads to decadency and violence on Earth. This is when God purges the earth with the flood. It seems that, with the creation of land, water, creatures, or man, evil will be present in some form.You have shoot about different symbols and themes in the Christian creation myth but the form in which it was originally to be important as well. The story was passed down from person to person through speech. It was an oral tradition for quite a while. It was not enter in written form until God gave it to Moses on Mt. Sinai. The source of the story is in the Old Testament of the Holy Bible in the Book of Genesis. The book of Genesis is one of tail fin books that comprise the bible.It is felt by many another(prenominal) scholars that the language in the Christian creation myth was formally recorded. The bible as it is known immediately in the United States is a translation of the original bible that was reco rded thousands of age ago. When the bible was originally translated from Hebrew to English, it is said that they translated it intelligence activity for word instead of translated phrases or whole sentences or thought for thought. The story that is hear today is the translation of Hebrew text that was passed down from God. The Christians believed this story of creation when it was first written and they still believe in it and all its characters today.The people to which the Christian creation myth came to was the Hebrew people. The role of women in their culture can be seen as being below man all through the bible. Its starts pretty early when God is cursing Eve for eating the apple and he tells her that she will forever be ruled over by man. This lack of respect for women is found in almost every book of the bible in various ways. Women are treated like lesser beings. This is even true in the Christian religion today. workforce are considered the ruler of the house and of the c hurch. In the modern church women dont twist any major roles. Women cannot be priests, bishops, cardinals or even the pope. I dont infer that will ever change due to the strict beliefs and history towards women in the Christian church.The Navajo creation myth compared to the Christian creation myth is a bit more complicated. The story of the Navajo creation begins in a gentle world, on a piece of land that is surrounded on quartet sides by water. Each side represented a direction and vividness white for the East, blue for the South, yellow for the West, and black for the North. On this piece of land were the louse people. No actual god is present at this testify but someone or something has to be with the insect people because they are expelled from the first world for arguing too much. Unlike the Christian creation myth, no god or creator is visible at the beginning of the Navajo creation myth.After the insect people leave the first world, they go to the second world where t hey impact the bird people and not long after are asked to leave because they continued to argue. When they emerged into the third world, they meet the hop-picker people and got along with them for awhile. Eventually, however, they were asked to leave this world, too. They left this world and emerged with four grasshopper people each colored the same color as one of the directions. In this world there were for mountains, each facing a specific direction. The insect people searched for people to the south, east, and west, and they found nothing. Then they traveled sexual union and came across farming community. Its people, the Pueblos, taught the insect people to farm, along with other necessary skills for survival.At this point in the creation story, the first god appears to the insect people, sometime during the first autumn. The gods name was talking god and with him appeared four other gods called White clay, Blue Body, icteric Body, and Black body. The Black Body God spok e and told the insect people to be more god-like or human and less like insects. They were also told to do a thorough self-cleanse and the Gods would return in twelve days. The Gods returned in twelve days with the Blue Body and the Black Body gods each carrying holy buckskins and the White Body and Yellow Body gods each carrying an ear of similarly colored corn. One buckskin was lay down facing east and the ears of corn were placed with eagle feathers on the buckskins and then covered with the other buckskin. By the request of the gods, wind blew between the buckskins, one from the east and one from the west. While the winds were blowing, eight mirage people encircle the mirage four times. When the top skin was removed, a man was where the white corn had been placed and a woman was where the yellow corn had been placed. They were known as the first man and first woman, or the holy people.The men and women did not always get along. Much like in the Christian creation myth there s eemed to be a divide between the men and the women. The Navajo people had an argument about the true causal agency that men hunt. This reason is that the sexual power of the women makes them hunt. The men became angry at this notion. The women felt that men and their abilities were not needed and they left the men. They traveled to the other side of the river where they lived for four years. During this time each side had performed unclean sexual acts. The women masturbated and the men would have sex with dead animal parts such as the colorful of a slain deer. These unclean acts lead to the creation of addicts that will later devour and plague the people for some time. Once instance where this happened was during a river crossing with a man, woman and their two young daughters. The man and woman got across but realized their daughters did not. This is when the two people and coyote went in to the river to find the girls and they eventually did in the lair of the water monster. Th e water monster did not resist when the parents came to take their children back. During this time when everyone was distracted, brush wolf stole the water monsters two babies and hid them under his robe.One of the symbols that keep repeating throughout the Navajo creation story is the number four, along with multiples of four. This may be because there are four main directions in the world. However, this is not made clear. Eight years after man was created a archetypal trickster appears in the creation myth. The trickster is a coyote, much like the serpent in the Christian myth. The coyote is a trouble maker and, although he is mischievous, he is not an evil being like the serpent was in the Christian myth. Coyote secretly stole the children of the water monster. This act of thievery is actually instrumental in the long run. More than anything, he seemed to make bad situations worse and never seemed to be helpful.In the Navajo creation myth, there is a flood as well. However, it differs from the Christian myth because the Navajo gods did not cause the flood in order to destroy all life on earth. The people were noticing that animals were head start to leave and realized the flood was approaching. They carried with them soil from the sacred mountains and, in that soil they planted four reeds that combined into one with a hole in the east side. All the people climbed the reed as the flood waters came. The climbed up the reed and emerged into the ordinal and final world. They soon realized, however, that water was avocation them through the hole and they used the stolen water monster children to plug the whole.When everyone emerged into the fifth world, an argument broke out between the Navajo people and the Pueblo people. This causes the Navajo and the Pueblo people to move apart from each other at this time. Later in history, they would meet again and teach each other different skills. After this cling between Pueblo and Navajo, the first man and the fi rst woman remade the four mountains with help from the gods using the soil from the mountains in the fourth world. All the symbols found in the Navajo creation story have a specific role or purpose.The theme of the Navajo creation myth is not a story of a divine creator, such as in the Christian myth, but it is a story of increase through four worlds that each has their own difficulties. The Navajo emergence story is called the Dine Bahane and is one of the most complex stories to be originally presented orally. It is eventually written down, but for many years it was simply passed on from person to person verbally. It was not until much later that the oral interpretation was translated and taken to written form. It is said that when Navajo people want to feel reborn or renewed as a culture, they perform a special ceremony. During this ceremony, they reenact the emergence creation myth. This story is just one of many ways that the creation myth is still remembered today.In conclu sion, when comparing the Navajo and Christian creation myths, the symbolism that arise between the two is quite similar considering the distance between these two cultures. The research shows similar archetypes, symbols, and how the myth was first presented and passed down to its audience. The two cultures represented within these distinct creation myths lived thousands of miles apart, and yet still had a few striking similarities within their myths. However, although they had their striking similarities, they also had many dramatic differences between the two that clearly distinguishes one creation story from the other. No matter what creation myth you believe to be true, no one knows for certain how humans came to inhabit the earth.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) Essay -- Animal-Assisted Therapy Essays

For many humans, a pet provides unconditional love and affection. Others feel an overwhelming calming, happy tactual sensation when they are around animals. According to The Ameri scum bag Veterinary Medical Association, studies redeem shown that due to these positive emotions that are stirred, the presence of and interaction with animals can demoralise heart rates and blood pressure. Animals that meet specific training criteria can become an integral part of a treatment process for a variety of psychological and physiological problems. Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT), which can be provided in a group or individual settings, is designed to promote improvement in a humans physical, social, emotional, or cognitive function. An article by Chitic, Rusu, and Szamoskozi (2012) provides an analysis in order to determine the value of AAT. Both dogs and horses that were proficient for AAT were examined and studied to determine their effectiveness in treating patients with psych ological disorders. The results showed that both therapy dogs and horses were rich aids to the therapeutic process. The analysis suggests that proper training and repeated sessions were requirement for proper treatment of patients. In addition, certain disorders may social welfare much than others in regards to AAT. For example, a child with ADHD may not benefit from a therapy dogs presence, for it may worsen the hyperactive symptoms. On the other hand, a patient with depression may benefit greatly from the same animal (Chitic, Rusu, Szamoskozi, 2012). These findings are a perfect starting school principal to answering the research question Do patients who engage in AAT intro a betterment in their overall emotional easy-being, as well as show improvement in their interpersonal interactions... ...dren with Pervasive developmental Disorders. Western Journal of Nursing Research 24.6 (2002) 657-70. Print.Motomura, Naoyasu, Takayoshi Yagi, and Hitomi Ohyama. Animal Assisted Thera py for passel with Dementia. Psychogeriatrics 4.2 (2004) 40-42. Print.Tyberg, Amy, and William H. Frishman. Chapter 6 - Animal-Assisted Therapy.Complementary and Integrative Medicine in Pain Management. By Michael I. Weintraub, Ravinder Mamtani, and Marc S. Micozzi. New York Springer Pub., 2008. 115-24. Print.OConner-Von, Susan. Chapter 14 - Animal-Assisted Therapy.Complementary & Alternative Therapies in Nursing. New York Springer, 2010. 207-23. Print.Zilcha-Mano, Sigal, Mario Mikulincer, and Phillip R. Shaver. Pet in the Therapy Room An Attachment Perspective on Animal-Assisted Therapy. Attachment & Human Development 13.6 (2011) 541-61. Print.

Stephen Dedalus in James Joyces A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Ma

Stephen Dedalus in James Joyces A Portrait of the mechanic as a unripe ManWhen the soul of a man is born in this country there are nets flung at it to hold it back from flight. You peach to me of nationality, language, religion. I shall try to fly by those nets The spirit of Ireland is embodied in young Stephen Dedalus, the central character of James Joyces A Portrait of the Artist as a new-fangled Man. Like the Dedalus of Greek myth, Stephen must parent wings so that he may fly above the tribulations of his life. As he matures, Dedalus begins to understand his position in life, and decides to rise above the steamed Ireland of the early 1900s in a rebellion against society, a struggle against his beliefs and a struggle against his heritage.Joyce wrote A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man in the decade preceding its first publication in 1916. The early 1900s was a turbulent time for Ireland, a time in which many groups and individuals were making pushes for an Independent Ir eland. Joyce brings Irish politics in as a major theme for Stephen Dedalus to address. Stephen often Idolizes or admonishes different characters in Irelands political landscape. Among these revolutionaries were the IRB (Irish Republican Brotherhood), Charles Steward Parnell, The revolutionaries of the 1916 Easter Rising and Sinn Fein.In the akin year A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man was published, between 1000 and 1ergocalciferol Irish patriots tried to capture the township of Dublin on Easter Day. The Easter Rising, as it was called, led to the close of approximately 1000 Irishmen and 500 Britons. Of the 1000 Irishmen, many were women and children, while of the 500 Britons all were either soldiers or policemen. The Easter Rising was not a spontaneous ev... ...k, Rev. Timothy D. The Dedalus Factor Einsteins Science and Joyces Portrait of the Artist. The Modern World. 4 April 2002 http//www.themodernword.com/joyce/joyce_paper_clark.htmlThe Early Years. Joyce and his time. 4 April 2002http//web.nwe.ufl.edu/kershner/bioa.html Fitzgibbon, Constantine. 1916 Easter Rising. 1916 The Rising. 4 April 2002http//www.users.bigpond.com/kirwilli/1916/James Joyce. Ultima actualizacion. 4 April 2002http//www.cwrl.utexas.edu/vfores/joyce.htmlMythography. The allegory of Daedalus in Myth and Art. Mythography. 4 April 2002http//www.loggia.com/myth/daedalus.htmlNiebuhr, Reinhold. The Serenity Prayer. Bread on the Waters. 21 April 2002http//www.cptryon.org/prayer/special/serenity.htmlTimeline. James Joyce Resource center. 4 April 2002http//english.ohio-state.edu/organizations/ijjf/jrc/jrctimel.htm

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

METAPHORS :: Essays Papers

METAPHORSI have usually found indite papers to be a stuggle, but this paper was different. At freshman I was intimidated by the fact that it had to be an analysis of ones profess writing pertaining to a specific discourse, but then once I saw the opportunity for creativity, the paper seemed fun and interesting. It gave me an opportunity to focus on the things I alike(p) about writing, the things that to me make writing an art contour containing beauty and exemption. Words are groups of mixed and matched letters which create sentences. The supra words and analagous words are silly-putty that one can maneuver into all shape, size, or form one chooses. Manueuvering these words to express ideas in a different way would describe a metaphor. Metaphors can help communicate a thought, or make a transition among ideas smoother like a football that glides through the air from one player to the next.I find there is an excitement in taking words, as Websters dictionary puts it, taking, u nits of language...typically seen as the smallest such units of space...distinguished phonetically..., and making metaphors creating words into brief arcseconds for someone else to experience. Everyone in his/her life, at one time or another has had a minute of arc when they have been left speechless. A moment on a decrease overlooking fierce, untamed waters, a sunset that sends blinding sparks off urban buildings, or a basketball game in which the underdog triumphs in the utmost seconds -- there is at least one time that everyone sees or perceives a sight that to them, is awesome. Something that in ones mind is distinguishable from any other moment and is too breathtaking, scary, or cool to describe in common phraseology or phrasiology, for the emotions or feelings involved in that moment would not recieve receivable justice.People behold scenes differently, so metaphors can vary greatly in the degree of imagery and the amount of emotion they elicit. This implies that they ap peal to a big discourse community rather than academic writing, unlike Jennifer Gebeleins term paper, Giardia, which because of its reputation has a more selective community. The discourse community, the writers and reader of metaphors may figure of speech from a seventh grade reading class to the C.E.O. of an international company.This emphasizes the freedom that is allowed with metaphors, the fact that metaphors hold no boundaries on audience or creativity. As with any form of freedom, risk is involved.

security terminology :: essays research papers

SecurityTerminologyDefine the following damage1.Authentication ability to identify who it isa. ACL (access control list) is associated w/ a abandoned resource. Describes groups, users, machines and their permissions associated with that particular resource.i.Token- one time only password pigmentb.CA- security system of authority- creates certificates -system or entity trusted to generate and distribute digital certificates. Can be privately apply or from a 3rd party e-commerce site. Verifies individuation of user. Authentication rule.c.RA- Registration Authority-issues certificates-RA verifies credentials supplied by an agent and then sends the CA an okay to issue a certificate.d.PKI- Public Key Infrastructure- Policies and behaviors that surround the deployment and watchfulness of key pairs. How you issue two keys at one time.e. Kerberos- Authentication method used by Microsoft. Uses 3 different protocols, listed belowi.TGT- Ticket granting ticket. Allows you to indicate resources on the network from waiters.ii.TGS- Ticket granting server. Accesses a particular network server for tickets.iii. AS- Authentication Server. Equivalent to a morning check-in at security desk of a hotel. Checks the identity of a server.f.CHAP- Challenge handshake hallmark protocol. Was intentional to replace the PAP. Communication between server and lymph node proving identity.i.MS-CHAP- Microsoft CHAPg.PAP- give-and-take authentication protocolh.X.509- digital certificate that uniquely identifies a party. well-worn structure of a certificate.i.KDC- Key distribution centerj.Biometrics- Authentications based on human anatomy.k.Multifactor- Authentication based on 2 valid authentication methods.l.Mutual Authentication- Client establishes identity to server. Server provides authentication information to client to ensure that illicit servers cannot masquerade as genuine servers. Both parties guide to authenticate.2.Encryption- hiding data using algorithms. protection, m ethod of code, algorithms, formulas a.Asymmetric keys- pair of key values one public and one private.b.Symmetric keys- single encoding key generated.c.DES- Data Encryption standard developed by government.d.Diffie-hellman- encoding algorithm named subsequently its two creators.e.IPSec- used for encryption of TCP/IP traffic. Method of encrypting any IP transmissions.f.PGP- Pretty good privacy- generally used in email less secure than the PKI.g.RSA- Rivest-Shamir-Adleman- encryption algorithm named after its 3 creators. Using two pair keys.h.SSL- Secure Socket Loader- used mainly on web servers to transmit securely via HTTPS//3.Network protocols and organizationa.DMZ- Demilitarized zone- govern used for public access. employ with FTP, web servers and DNS servers. b.IDS- Intrusion Detection System- 2 types Active and Passivec.NAT- Network Address Translation- Appends to your logical port. Protects internal hosts. Used with proxy servers. Translates internal IP to Real IP. Uses un ique port table. on that point is 65,000 portsd.Tunneling- ability to go to 1 point to another as though you are a single proprietary line.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Stopping the Practice of Female Genital Cutting Essays -- Ethics, Cult

Female genital mutilation is a give deeply entangle in the cultural beliefs of many Africans and select groups around the world. Also, just resembling any different culture, they will cling even more powerfully to their ancient traditions when their beliefs are challenged by people from an outside culture. When someone from other country comes to a tribe to essentially tell them that one of their just about basic traditions is wrong, problems usually ensue. This is mainly because, in an Africans work forcetion of view, the outsider does not bring in the tribes beliefs and so has no valid privilege to tell the tribe what they should or should not do. In this way, even if there are a select few men and women that support the foreigners view, they run the risk of ridicule or even banishment from their fellow peers and will not step forward to condemn their ages-old practice. To further explain the gravity of this situation, one must understand that in many villages if a woman i s not cut, then she is, in the words of Rogaia Abusharaf, generally assumed to be promiscuous, a man-chaser. In other words, genital cutting is considered an essential aspect of a womans identity. Thus, decreasing the prevalence of cutting is a very intricate service that involves a deep change in a cultures social beliefs. I agree with Abusharaf when she states without a deep commitment from inside these cultures to end the cutting, eradication efforts imposed from the outside are bound to give way (Abusharaf).Now, the question is how to first initiate these changes within a culture that practice female cutting as easily as breathing. Cutting is not something they openly discuss amongst themselves, but is essentially regarded as a required tradition. It is the norm in t... ...understand that death or later sickness a woman can catch is most likely from the procedure. Together, we can help oneself the movement to end FGM and soon no woman or barbarian will have to undergo the unnecessary torture and humiliation from the procedure. deeds CitedAbusharaf, Rogaia Mustafa. Unmasking Tradition. Sciences. 38. 2(1998)22. eLibrary. Web.11 Oct. 2011.Ben-Ari, Nirit. Changing Traditions to Safeguard Women.Africa Recovery. Africa Recovery, May 2003. Web. 4 declination 2011. Female Genital Mutilation-A Guide to Laws Policies Worldwide Part 2 of 20. ContemporaryWomens Issues Database. 01 Jan. 2000 1+. eLibrary. Web. 11 Oct. 2011.Rosenberg, Tina. Editorial Observer Mutilating Africas Daughters Laws Unenforced, Practices Unchanged.The New York Times. The New York Times, 05 Jul 2004. Web. 4 Dec 2011.

Challenging The Institution of Sport and Its Values: The Costs and Benefits of Female Athletes in M :: Film Films Movies Sports Women Essays

gainsay The governance of Sport and Its ValuesSport is non an expression of some biologic human need, writes Michael Messner, it is a social institution. worry other institutions, such as the economy, politics, and the family, the organize and values of lark go away and change historically, more often than not as a result of defends for causation in the midst of groups of people (8). Indeed, changing the grammatical construction of some(prenominal) the institution is a struggle that is non by any means easily won. The institution of sport presents a unique batch of boundaries to overcome with regard to gender equivalence in male- predominate sports. Both work force and women take big risks when they forge naked as a jaybird ground by competing in a sport that is traditionally predominate by the opposite sex. This root will discuss the costs and benefits of women competing in predominately male-dominated sports by examining Karyn Kusamas Girlfight and Pumping Iron II The Women. In Karyn Kusamas Girlfight (2000), Diana Guzman is a tough preteen woman, struggling to get by in a low-income area of the Brooklyn. later on continued disciplinary problems in school, Diana channels her aggression into training to pose a boxer. She fights to assert herself twain inside and outside of the boxing crowd inside the ring, she proves that she is a inviolable and athletically talented young (woman) boxer outside of the ring, she fights to define and prove herself in a broken home. After proving her posture when she defended her brother Tiny in a sparring match at the gym, Diana asks Hector to train her to develop a boxer. Hector replies, You can train, merely you cant compete...you just cant. Girls dont have the analogous power as boys. Hectors response, and the response of well-nigh of the men in her flavor is indicative of the function and effect of power in the institution of sport. Michael Messner arguesThe structure and values of sport are l argely shaped by, and in the interests of, those who find power...power is not simply a top-down, unidirectional work in which overabundant groups assert and enforce their rules, values, and beliefs over dominated groups. Rather, power is a process in which dominated groups may partially accept, however also attack to redefine, negotiate, or even reject, the ruling groups rules, values, and meanings (12). Diana proves to Hector, and her competitors, that her persuasiveness and athleticism are not only comparable to her male counterparts, but often far exceeds them.Challenging The Institution of Sport and Its Values The Costs and Benefits of Female Athletes in M Film Films Movies Sports Women EssaysChallenging The Institution of Sport and Its ValuesSport is not an expression of some biological human need, writes Michael Messner, it is a social institution. Like other institutions, such as the economy, politics, and the family, the structure and values of sport emerge and ch ange historically, largely as a result of struggles for power between groups of people (8). Indeed, changing the structure of any the institution is a struggle that is not by any means easily won. The institution of sport presents a unique set of boundaries to overcome with regard to gender equality in male-dominated sports. Both men and women take big risks when they forge new ground by competing in a sport that is traditionally dominated by the opposite sex. This paper will discuss the costs and benefits of women competing in predominately male-dominated sports by examining Karyn Kusamas Girlfight and Pumping Iron II The Women. In Karyn Kusamas Girlfight (2000), Diana Guzman is a tough young woman, struggling to get by in a low-income area of the Brooklyn. After continued disciplinary problems in school, Diana channels her aggression into training to become a boxer. She fights to assert herself both inside and outside of the boxing ring inside the ring, she proves that she is a st rong and athletically talented young (woman) boxer outside of the ring, she fights to define and prove herself in a broken home. After proving her strength when she defended her brother Tiny in a sparring match at the gym, Diana asks Hector to train her to become a boxer. Hector replies, You can train, but you cant compete...you just cant. Girls dont have the same power as boys. Hectors response, and the response of most of the men in her life is indicative of the function and effect of power in the institution of sport. Michael Messner arguesThe structure and values of sport are largely shaped by, and in the interests of, those who hold power...power is not simply a top-down, one-way process in which dominant groups assert and enforce their rules, values, and beliefs over dominated groups. Rather, power is a process in which dominated groups may partially accept, but also attempt to redefine, negotiate, or even reject, the ruling groups rules, values, and meanings (12). Diana prove s to Hector, and her competitors, that her strength and athleticism are not only comparable to her male counterparts, but often far exceeds them.

Monday, March 25, 2019

Hate Crimes Should NOT be Punished Differently than Other Crimes Essay

Hate Crimes Should NOT be Punished Differently than Other Crimes Hate annoyances should not be penalize differently than other shames. The actual criminal offense should be punished, not the debate piece of tail it. The idea of punishing horrors differently found on dupes cogency make some people or groups feel that others are more protected or valued than they are. The concept of punishing disgusts differently because of penury is senseless, unnecessary, and an injustice. Again, the actual crime should be punished not the reasoning behind it. Murder is murder, robbery is robbery, rape is rape, regardless of motive. For example, soulfulness A and Person B both assault innocent people. exclusively while beat forth the life out of his victim, Person B calls him a Nigger. His crime is considered a hate crime. Consequently, his crime will receive harsher punishment. Despite why the crime took place, the point is that a crime took place. No matter why the victim is chosen, he or she was still harmed, the family is still going to grieve, and someone mustiness be punished. Whether a person is killed for money or drugs or out of hate or prejudice, the fact still remains that he or she has been killed. With hate crime laws, the hate is being looked at, more so than the crime itself. Even though hate is a terrible thing to puddle in your heart, all Americans have the right to hate whatever or who ever they want. Besides, if officials start punishing hate or unholy thoughts, they office as well make a new category of crime thought crime. If this line of thinking were acted upon, then half of America would be behind bars.As stated above, the idea of punishing crimes differently based on the victim might make some people or groups feel as if others are more prot... ...ce about committing a crime. But lawmakers failed to see that this is the point of any law. Look at how much crime this country has. That is part of the reason why many states reins tated the death punishmentbecause people were supposed to think twice about committing crimes. Obviously, these laws are not doing their job. The government reported 97 executions this year alone, up from 68 in 1998 and 74 executions in 1997 (Johnson 1). Officials should rethink their strategies. If laws already exist for a sealed crime, regardless of whether or not it is a hate crime, then those laws should be used. Laws should not be changed to fit individual situations.In conclusion, hate crimes should be punished no differently than other crimes. The effects are the same. The crime is basically the same. The family experiences the same trauma and the punishment should be the same.

What is the Function of a Social Contract? Essay -- essays research pa

What is the Function of a affable Contract?Philosophers corroborate been concerned with the theories of a social reduce for thousands of years. Plato mentions the concept in Crito and in Republic. These theories have stemmed from the concept of justice and for our society to be just. I lead look at the readys of doubting Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, denim Jacques Rousseau and finally with John Rawls after which a overall spatial relation into the puzzle out of a social contract can be derived as sound as any problems with the theory(s). The basic concept of a social contract is for members of society to enter into a voluntary contract, which allows society to go from a render of nature to a state of civilisation. What is meant by a state of nature is quite uniform to how the rest of the animal kingdom works. A persons security depends on his or her own personalized power. The fittest survive and the weakest suffer. Every person is concerned with his or her own ends. Plato draw two types of contract within society. These were the contract of citizenship and the contract of community. The contract of citizenship was tackled in Crito. He regarded it as a contract made by distributively individual citizen with the state or law. If a man is to remain in a political society he go away have to take up its debt instruments for he has enjoyed it privileges and benefits.The contract of community was covered in Republic tidings II. This theory is based on the assumption the man is an egoist. With this assumption of each man for himself it is likely that he would either cause harm to others or sustain harm from others and therefore there would be a fill to combat this. Thomas Hobbes published his work, the leviathan, which included theories of a social contract. His view is very similar to Platos in regards to contract of community. He matt-up that there was a need for members of a society to Curtail the warfargon of all against all and without these theo ries this war would spiral out of control with everyone competing against infrequent resources. He talks about how a persons specialisation is all that protects them from others. The only way he saw fit to foretell this predicament would be for a person to voluntarily agree to a contract where their natural freedom is given up in rescue for personal security. This freedom would be give up to the supreme authority, the Leviathan, which would military service as a common pow... ...ction to relatives and close associates. The theory of general will also has problems. What can protect society from unjust rulers who say they are working in the way of general will? General will does not allow for difference in taste. It also identifies moral obligation with general interest. This is a problem because people may have similar morals but have different interest. The rulers can also work with regards to the interest of the state but not with regards to morals. BibliographyLeviathan Thom as Hobbes edited by Richard Tuck 1991 Cambridge University pinchRousseaus Political Philosophy Ramon M Lemos 1977 University of gallium PressThe Second Treatise of Government John Locke edited by Thomas P Peardon 1952 Bobbs and Merrill company inc.Problems of Political Philosophy rewrite edition DD Raphael 1976 Macmillan Press ltd.The Social Contract and Discourses Jean Jacques Rousseau translated by GDH Cole 1973 JM Dent and Sons ltd.The Social Contract or Principles of Political Right second edition revised Jean Jacques Rousseau translated by Henry J Tozer 1898 Swan Sonnenschein and Co.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

Thomas Hardys Views on Marriage Essay -- Biography Biographies Essays

doubting Thomas venturouss Views on wedding partyThomas Hardy lived in a time when marriage was the anticipate practice for young men and women. He had a very apparent view of the institution and the implications that came on with it. He himself was married twice in his long life, both times not very happily, and had progressive views around the union of the sexes, most particularly regarding divorce. His ideas and opinions are not too guardedly concealed in his literary works, though he contested that he kept his own views out of his fiction. In order to understand Hardy and his views on marriage, we must first understand the time in which he lived. The Victorian society held rigid views on marriage and the role of women in life. Most women regarded marriage as a fixed fact of nature. It was a fundamental part of their life plan, as was childbearing. In the mid-19th century, reproduction was considered a charrs only correct occupation. On average, women of all classes marri ed between the ages of 23 and 26, men between 25 and 30. Marriage and divorce legislation set the relations between men and women. During the 19th century there were great changes made to matrimonial law however, marriage laws still continued to consort more rights to men than to women. Under the common-law doctrine of couverture, when a woman married she lost her independent legal personality as a femme sole (single woman) and became a femme couvert (covered woman). Men could divorce their wives solely on the grand of adultery, but women were forced to show proof of cruelty, bigamy, incest, or bestiality along with infidelity. Husbands could beat to death their wives and get only a minimal prison house sentence, but wives were considered reprehensible for kill... ... should rule marriage. If two people have akin(predicate) interests and work well together, they should be united by marriage in order to enjoy the physical pleasures of a relationship in a socially acceptable way . However, if two people should grow apart and be utterly miserable with one another, Hardy believes that the practical course is judicial separation and divorce. BibliographyChrist, Carol T., ed. The Norton Anthology of English Literature The Victorian Age. V. 2b, 7th ed. New York W.W. Norton & Company, 2000. Millgate, Michael. Thomas Hardy A Biography. New York Random House, 1982. Mitchell, Sally, ed. Victorian Britain An Encyclopedia. New York embellish Publishing, Inc., 1988. Page, Norman, ed. Oxford Readers Companion to Hardy. Oxford Oxford University Press, 2000. Perkin, Joan. Victorian Women. New York New York University Press, 1993.

The School of Athens Essay -- essays research papers fc

Biography of RaphaelWhile we may term other whole caboodle paintings, those of Raphael be living things the flesh palpitates, the breath comes and goes, every organ lives, life-time pulsates everywhere. -- VasariRaphael was born Raffaello Santi or Raffaello Sanzio in Urbino on April 6, 1483, and received his early teaching in art from his father, the painter Giovanni Santi. In 1499 he went to Perugia, in Umbria, and became a student and assistant of the painter Perugino. Raphael imitated his master closely their paintings of this period are executed in styles so similar that art historians have shew it difficult to determine which were multi-coloured by Raphael. In 1504 Raphael moved to Florence, where he studied the work of such established painters of the time as da Vinci da Vinci and Michelangelo, learning their methods of representing the play of light and shade, anatomy, and dramatic action. In 1508 Raphael was called to capital of Italy by Pope Julius II and commissione d to execute frescoes in cardinal small stanze, or rooms, of the Vatican Palace. The second Vatican chamber, the Stanza dEliodoro, painted with the aid of Raphaels assistants, contains scenes representing the triumph of the popish Catholic church over its enemies.After the death of Pope Julius II in 1513, and the accession of Leo X, Raphaels influence and responsibilities increased. He was made old-timer architect of Saint Peters Basilica in 1514, and a year subsequent was appointed director of all the excavations of antiquities in and near capital of Italy. Raphael died in Rome on his 37th birthday, April 6, 1520. tutor of AthensBrief HistoryRaphael painted the School of Athens from-1510 1512. He was commissioned by pope Julius II, with the recommendation of Donato Bramante, the popes architect, to work in the Vatican. His initiative work the School of Athens was loved so much by the pope that he commissioned Raphael to paint the entire papal suite. In the School of Athens, philosophers and intellects from divers(prenominal) time periods are arranged as students in a schooldays or academy where everyone is learning off each other. The Stanza della Segnatura was to be Julius program library which would house a small collection of books intended for his personal use. The walls of the first ... ...Inc., PublishersYale University Press invigorated York, 1967New Haven & London, 1983The VaticanArt in reincarnation ItalyDaley, JohnPaoletti, John T. and Radke, Gary M. The Metropolitan Museum of ArtHarry N. Abrams, Inc., PublishersNew York, 1975New York, 1997

Saturday, March 23, 2019

Shadows On The Wall by Phyllis Reynolds Naylor Essay example -- Shadow

Shadows On The W only by Phyllis Reyn grizzlys NaylorDan Roberts Dan is the main character in Shadows On The Wall . He is unendingly seeing and feeling nearly rattling strange things on his pass . Everymorning he takes a jog very untimely around Micklegate Bar . He withal makes anew helpmate on his journey to York , England . Dan is 15 years old . Joe Stanton Joe is a political hack driver . He and Dan become really unspoiled friends . Joeis an old still wise man in many ways . He also takes Dan to see all the sites inYork and drives all the people around , b arely mostly the people staying at theHotel . Ambrose Faw He was the leader in the Faw family . He and Joe are also verygood friends and they have known each other for almost the whole lives . lift Rose was married to Ambrose and had four near kids . She is also a psychic exchangeable her mother . She is a very kind person . Nat Nat was Ambroses son . He wants to leave the capital of Italy clan and haveadventures wh en he grows up . He and Dan become good friends and Natshows Dan around their camp . Nat also keeps bothering Dan because hewants to trade for Dans charge , but Dan said no because it is the only belt hebrought with him . In the end they end up trading anyway . Jasper He is Ambroses oldest son . He is also a mute , but he could talk whenhe was younger . One day he came zip out of the woods scared and nevertalked again . Dan sometimes hears him sing in the woods . When he toldJoe he said it was more like a chant . Dan has also seen Jasper turn into a typeof goliath with lime-green hair . Jasper is always staring at Dan .Orlenda Orlenda is Nats older infant , she is often looking at Dan . Hergrandmother thinks that she is going to run aside with a gorgio . Thegrandmother considers Dan a gorgio . She barely talks to him but they arealways near each other . Granny the granny is Roses mother and she can tell the future . She believesthat everyone of the gypsies have a special power . She also knew exactlywhen she was going to die and she was ripe . Rachel Rachel is the youngest of Roses children and doesnt do much in the accommodate but help around with the little things .Mr. Roberts He is Dans soda pop . All through the book he is playing very queerly on the entire tripMrs. Roberts She is Dans mom , she is also acting very strangely and her andher husband are kee... ... into the soldiers facehe turn Joe .They were both dripping with sweat and they sat there andtalked until sunrise . In the moring the other gypsy clan came and theyfinished the funeral and burned the grannys things . After Dan and Joe atethey left because Joe knew that they wanted to be alone . On the way homeDan told Joe about how he saw Ambrose in the tower and that he was gettingsoil . Then Joe told Dan that the old woman wasnt born in thegardens(Museum Gardens).Before Dan had left the camp he traded his beltwith Nat for an old Romany coin . That was the last day Dan was in York .Whe n he got punt to the hotel he took a shower then went to sleep . When hisParents got back They all packed and left . That night Ambrose went to thehotel and asked for Dan but Mrs. Harrison told him that they left . AfterAmbrose left the hotel he went to the stream and threw Dans belt in thedeepest part of the water . That is how the book ends .VII. This was a really good book . There were some boring parts , but most ofit was good . There were some really good parts in this book , and there werealot of bold parts . I think the ending is very confusing .